American world war ii destroyers
Construction of the (earlier) Benson class destroyers and the (later) Allen. The specifications used in this article were taken from Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships. Every destroyer had to strike a balance between these often contradictory requirements and it is not surprising that destroyers designed to operate on inland seas (the Baltic or Mediterranean, for example) differed from those designed to operate in the vast Pacific Ocean.
Since they did not have true dual-purpose main batteries, unlike the Battle (UK Fletcher (US) and Akitsuki (Japan) classes, they were deficient in AA guns and during the war the.2mm MG were replaced by from. Four Fletcher s have been preserved on public display. In the United States, The Sullivans at Buffalo, Kidd (beautifully restored to late-World War II configuration) at Baton Rouge, and Cassin Young, berthed across the pier from the frigate USS Constitution at the Boston Navy Yard, Charlestown, Massachusetts, are open to the public. In May 1942, before the first Fletcher was even commissioned, it approved a six-gun ship in which the Fletcher s five 5-inch single mounts were replaced with three 5-inch twinsthe 2,200-ton Allen.
Eventually, eleven shipyards launched 175 ships over the next 32 monthsthe most numerous class of destroyer completed by any navy. Authorized for fiscal year 1941, construction of the first ships was already under way when the United States entered the war. The Imperial Japanese Navy fielded fine, high speed, long-range destroyers during the Second World War.
Displacement: tons standard; tons full load Dimensions: 333' 4" pp, 350' loa, 33' 7" beam, 11' 6" draft Machinery: 2-shaft Belluzzo (OTO built ship's Parsons) geared turbines, 3 Yarrow boilers, 48,000 hp 38 knots (trials) and 34-35 knots sea speed. Later emphasis on anti-aircraft defense led to a redesigned or square bridge for improved all-around sightlines, beginning with Brownson (DD 518). A main battery of only four guns had been one of the few criticisms leveled at the original Battle class.
They were also the first US destroyers fitted with radar as built. Oil 710 tons Armament: 8-5.5 45 (4x2 4-37mm AA (2x2 4-13.2mm MG (2x2 10-21.7" TT (2x3 2x2 40 mines Complement: 264 Launched: Both ships were scuttled at Toulon in November 1942, ending their brief careers. Some 40 additional units were proposed in various wartime supplementary building programs, but the resources to build them were not available. The 1936B type were good-looking, balanced ships.
Thus there were two groups of 2,100-tonners: one-third (58) were high- or round-bridge ships; two-thirds, (117) were low- or square-bridge ships. Being on the losing side in WW II, most of the Italian destroyers were ultimately sunk and the majority of the few surviving ships were assigned to victorious Allied navies as war reparations. In an emergency program to expand capacity, some shipyards were upgraded and other new ones were brought on line. Britain needed many destroyers to protect the numerous heavy ships of the Royal Navy, her merchant marine (the largest in the world at the beginning of the Second World War) and her far-flung Empire.
Construction (top) and disposition following World War II (bottom). The Chinese ship, Fen Yang (ex- Yoitzuki was not scrapped until 1963. They carried the fully developed version of the British.5 45. Z44 was bombed and sunk by the RAF while being outfitted at Bremen in July 1944.
The Battle class DD's served the UK and her allies long and well and represent the zenith of WW II British destroyer design. This second batch were provided with an additional, single.5" gun in a mount with 55-degrees elevation, located just aft of the funnel. Some ships in 1945 had one bank of torpedo tubes removed to compensate for replacing two of their twin 40mm gun mounts with quad 40mm mounts. Their final heavy destroyers were the 16 units of the Akitzuki class, ordered as part of the 19 building programs.
The 25mm AA battery was progressively increased to between 40 and 51 guns on surviving ships by the end of the war. The Fletcher design permitted significant increases over preceding classes in hull, armament, machinery, ammunition, stores and fuel bunkerage.
These were large, late war destroyers intended primarily for use in the Pacific. Four ships, including the Sullivans pictured above, have been preserved in the.S. Destroyers fought submarines, aircraft and surface actions against all other classes of warships, from battleships to MTB's. Known at first as US Destroyer.